Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Hydraulic Design, My Father and Juan Dela Cruz

My passion for Structural Engineering, I focused my sight to delve into many books for Structural Analysis and Design calculations and Hydraulics calculation, so most of the time given to me by God, I used to study and to research the history of this interesting major subject in civil engineering.

In my SOLITUDE and secluded time I had the opportunity to meditate asking guidance from God, because of many major major question marks (?) that always recurring to my mind asking myself and praying to God, I humbly asked God about the words of wisdom that I always reckoned, uttered by my earthly father who is a diligent person, a farmer and a Barangay Chairman at barangay Imelda. My father was able to send me to college, with his dreams to have children civil engineers as their profession, inspired by my godfather Avelino Siquig a civil engineer and a teacher. We are grateful to our earthly father for caring and loving us, and supported us even at the darkest time of our life being his children.

In retrospect, the words of wisdom which recurring to my seat of consciousness that were uttered by my father, occurred sometime in 2008, when we had a conversation with my father, and my younger brother a licence civil engineer also, while we had a dinner we talked about our professions, the occurrences, circumstances. We talked about those LAYMAN persons in our town, how they had abused their connections to political figures and/or politicians, show off (bragged) themselves and acted as ALL KNOWING and PRIGGISH, NONCHALANT. They were showing to their Bosses, that they knew more than those who were educated in the University and seasoned already in their field of studies, acquired specialization for structural engineering subjects in civil engineering degree, namely;
  • Reinforced concrete design,
  • Structural steel design,
  • Timber design,
  • Engineering mechanics,
  • Theory of structures (Structural Analysis),
  • Strength of Materials (mechanics of materials),
  • Hydraulics,
  • Surveying
Hydraulics - in civil engineering study of flow of water in drainage canal, irrigation canal,rivers, dam buildings, water supply and then Surveying subjects.

I am sorry to say that political positions are just temporary every 3 years there is an election. A big question mark (?) to our minds. Why is it? What a disgusting acts? How could they abused their connections? They should act and accept gladly as what they are, their education and relevance to infrastructures. They are not engineers as we are, they are considered layman persons (carpenters like Mr. Pedring Rongcales, masons, religious pastors "Mr. Baldonado" and ministers, politicians), we humbly understand them with all due respect, but they could not understand our side that we have license to protect anytime can be revoked by Professional Regulation Commission, we follow standard codes, methods of design and construction. But, still I understand their side as avid supporter of the mayor, governor, congressman, president, the same as I am, I had supported them financially, physically and most importantly my family all out support for them. We recalled how we supported people that supposed to be our friends, allies, and then, we admired them as leaders. Unfortunately or fortunately (in other side of the story), I was employed for signifying and/or as a signatory of the projects for their HONOR and FAME and GLORY.

Flooded Street at Consolacion St. Brgy. Eco after one hour of rain shower
KALAHI-CIDSS Overflowing Drainage Canal project, Mondragon, Philippines

As engineers we follow orders from our Bosses, even it would risk our profession, we signed promptly, we closed our eyes (pikit mata tayo), because of fear of being fired from works. To mention precisely, the KALAHI-CIDSS projects of the Department of Social Welfare and Development funded by the World Bank in USDollars, which I had signed immediately amounting to 30 millions pesos, because I was told by my boss that he would fire me from work, if ever I will not cooperate and/or obey and eventually yielded to his command and likes. I was saddened of those events and threatening words, I was forced and compelled, I had experienced pressure from my Boss. The Area Coordinator of kalahi-cidss who is not an engineer had incited and instigated the mayor that I was not cooperating, making some corrections and suggestions, then the mayor (my boss) got angry. The area coordinator Mr. Romeo Daz which is an effeminate a sissy person does not like to be corrected and accept suggestion from engineer. The KALAHI-CIDSS area coordinators were hastening the signing of plans even without reading the documents, hurrying the implementations of the projects to impress their directors that they are good enough, excellent to their works without giving due respect to engineer who signified as to the correctness of plans and program of works. They did not use survey instrument for drainage canal, foreman has to be followed, they relied more on the basis of layman experience rather than scientific method per advise of the engineer, applying formulas for rainfall intensity, slope, velocity and discharge of water of course using the principles of Hydraulics, so the result of their ignorance of scientific method is overflowing drainage canal.


Q = C i A

Q = maximum rate of runoff
C = runoff coefficient
i = average rainfall intensity, for the period of maximum rainfall of a given frequency of occurrence having a duration equal to the time required for the entire drainage area to contribute flow.
A = drainage area

Here is the Hydraulics Manning formula applicable in drainage canal for the information of those non-engineers:

Manning's Formula:

V = 1/n *R^2/3 *S^1/2 -----water velocity (m/sec)
Q = A*V --------------------water discharge (cu.m./sec)
A = -------Area of section(e.g. rectangular, circular, trapezoid)
S = --------------------------slope of canal
R = --------------------------hydraulic radius
n = --------------------------run-off coefficient

Click here to link, Manning Equations and Formulas Calculator...

For information of those people who want to know! then click the link below!

The inventor of Formulas in Hydraulics.
French Engineer Robert Manning -1816 -1897
Another Engineer who devise a formula for Velocity is Antoine Chezy, a French engineer.
Antoine Chezy

V = 31(ah/p)^1/2....Uniform velocity of water in a ditch and in a canal.

KALAHI engineers and few people in our town Mondragon are showing off despite of the fact, that they do not know how to make analysis and design for footbridges, school buildings, conduct survey and used it for drainage design, they don't how to consider the forces of nature, mechanics of engineering, design criteria, what they did was to prepare a hurriedly done program of works and submit drawing proportioned by the RULES OF THUMBS.

Hence, my recommendation to the DSWD Undersecretary Luwalhati Pablo and DSWD Secretary Dinky Soliman which are the in-charge of kalahi-cidss they/she should send to the field an experienced engineers to handle this kind of infrastructures, anyway this government program is being funded by the world bank (in million US dollar) .

Engineers are good followers they closed their eyes to impress also their Bosses, but sad to say to tell frankly to the world, often times engineers are forgotten, neglected and untold heroes, they are good only for themselves. The Bible say! whoever exalts himself will be humbled and whoever humbles himself will be exalted... Matthew 23:12.

I admired people who are in position and have powers, because they controlled the government. They were trusted by majority voters but not all voters and inhabitants of the province and/or town. Majority votes......! "meaning more than one(1) vote against their opponents". They looked for source of funds for infrastructures, so that they could give to their constituents to fulfill their promises, and of course engineers are a part of it, for programming and signatory, having the technical knowledge as per Republic Act, "RA 544 - Engineering Law of the Philippines" photocopy of which is available at my residence. And my father said to us and I quote "Only in his HOMETOWN and in his OWN HOUSE is a Prophet without HONOR- Mat 13:57." .......these words of wisdom came out from his mouth as a layman person. But my father quoted the words from the New testament Bible, and these words were uttered and spoken by Jesus Christ while teaching the gentiles in Israel, who did not believe him as a Messiah, a Savior.

References-All books below are on the shelves in my Personal Library.
  1. Cyclopedia of Civil Engineering-American Technical School, volume 1-SURVEYING, volume 8-HYDRAULICS by Frederick Turneaure-1908;
  2. TREATISE ON HYDRAULICS by Mansfield Merriman and Thaddeus Merriman, 9th edition-1912, 605 pages;
  3. A Treatise on Hydraulics by Henry T. Bovey, 1st edition -1895, 2nd edition -600+ pages-1901 and 1908;
  4. Mechanics of Engineering, volume 3 -A Treatise on HYDRAULICS and Pneumatics by Irving Church, C. E.,-1889;
  5. Hydraulics by Venancio Besavilla 1987;
  6. Hydraulics by Matias Arreola 1989.

Relevant Websites: External links open new window, Engineer's standpoint is not responsible of their contents nor endorses it. History of Manning's Formula, Hardy Cross Pipe Network