Wednesday, October 26, 2011

History of Structural Analysis

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS as we know it today evolved over several thousand years. During this time many types of structures such as beams, arches, trusses and frames were used in construction for Hundred or even thousand of years before satisfactory methods of analysis were developed for them.

While ancient engineers showed some understanding of structural behavior (with evidenced of their successful construction of bridges, cathedrals, etc.), real progress with the Theory of Structural Analysis occurred only in the past 150 years.

The EGYPTIANS and other ancient builders surely had some kinds of empirical rules drawn from previous experiences for determining sizes of structural members. There is, However, NO EVIDENCE that they had developed any THEORY of STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS. The Egyptian Imhotep built the great PYRAMID of Saqqara (the Step pyramid of Djoser, Egypt's first pyramid) in circa 2630 B.C. sometimes is referred to as the world's first Structural Engineer and master builder. The Khufu's pyramid at about circa 2550 B. C., height 147 meters built by Egyptian Hemiunu, Pharaoh khufu's master builder; the largest pyramid ever built, it incorporates about 2.3 millions tone blocks. No doubt the Egyptians and other ancient builders had formulated empirical rules on their previous experience to guide them in planning a new structure, but then again there is NO EVIDENCE that they had developed even the beginnings of a Theory of structural behavior.

How did they do it? A question asked by Dr. Smith in the November 2004 issue of Civil Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers magazine), Craig B. Smith, Ph.D., P.E.

He profoundly explained this as follows:
Unfortunately, no plans, no drawings, or no written records regarding the construction of Khufu's pyramid have ever been discovered; It is clear from surviving records and from examination of structures built at Giza and before the Giza pyramids that the ancient Egyptians understood the principles of the lever and inclined plane; calculate the volumes, slopes, and angles, they knew how to survey, that they devised a sound system of measurements based on cubit, a unit of length equal to approximately half a meter; they had no pulleys. Clearly ramps were employed by the pyramids' builders in some fashion. The ramp is constructed by about 158 m against the base of the pyramid and the ramp construction proceeds hand in hand with pyramid construction Dr. Craig Smith concluded. Only ONE other structure built in the Old kingdom can compete with Khufu's pyramid in terms of size, grandeur, and engineering complexity- the system of ramps that was erected to build the pyramid itself. Regrettably, this remarkable example of Fourth Dynasty ingenuity and skill was obliterated as the final measure before Khufu's stair-steps to the gods was consecrated.
Great Pyramid of Giza (Pharaoh Khufu or Cheops to the Greeks) - circa 2550 B. C.
Aerial View of the Great Pyramids of Giza -circa 2550 B.C.

Diagram of Great Pyramid of Giza -Pharaoh Khufu showing the inside view of structure

First Theory of Ramp Construction, Source: Public Domain via Wikimedia commons
Second Theory of Ramp Construction, Source: Public Domain via Wikimedia commons

The ruined Pyramid of Djedefre at Abu Rawash -wikipedia 

Although the Greeks built some magnificent structures, their contributions to structural theory were few and far between. The Secrets of the Parthenon link to youtube

Ruins of Parthenon- Ancient Greece built by Iktinos in 447 -438 BC

Remains of the west gate Roman Forum, Greece Athens - 146 to 12 BC

Pythagoras (about 582 -500 B.C.), a Greek mathematician, who is said to have originated the word mathematics, is famous for the right angle theorem that bears his name the Pythagorean theorem. Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) Greek mathematician developed some fundamental principles of static and introduced the term center of gravity.

The Romans were outstanding builders and were very competent in using certain structural forms such as semicircular masonry arches. As did the Greeks, they, too had Little KNOWLEDGE of Structural Analysis and made even less Scientific progress in Structural Theory. They probably designed most of their beautiful buildings from an ARTISTIC VIEWPOINT. Perhaps their great bridges and aqueducts were proportioned with some RULES OF THUMBS, however, if these methods of design resulted in proportions that were insufficient, the structures collapsed and no Historical records were kept. Only their successes endured.

Most of the knowledge that the Greeks and Romans accumulated concerning structural engineering was lost during the Middle Ages between A.D. 476 and 1492, and has been recovered only since the Renaissance (beginning of Renaissance period -the fall of Muslim Granada in Spain and the voyage of Christopher Columbus to America).

Roman Bridge, 134 AD

Ponte Pietra Stone Bridge -100 BC

Roman Bridge -Circa 102-106AD

Ruin of Roman Bridge, 30 BC - 14AD

Ruins of Roman Aqueduct, Asia Minor Turkey -Circa 300AD -363AD

Ruins of Roman Bridge -142 BC

One of the greatest and most noteworthy contribution to structural analysis, as well as to all other scientific fields, was the development of the Hindu-Arabic system of numbers. Unknown Hindu mathematician in the second and third centuries B.C. originated numbering system of One to Nine (1 to 9). In about 600 A.D. the Hindus invented the symbol SUNYA (meaning empty). which we call ZERO. (The Mayan Indians of Central America, However, had apparently developed the concept zero about 300 years earlier.)

In the 8th century A.D. the Arabs learned this numbering system from scientific writings of the Hindus. in the following century, a Persian mathematician wrote a book that include the system, his book was translated into Latin some years later and brought to Europe. In around 1000 A.D. Pope Sylvester II decreed that the Hindu- Arabic numbers were to be used by Christians.

In the Renaissance period (14th to 17th century); Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) was not only the leading artist of his time but was also a great scientist and engineer. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) is properly acknowledged to be not only the founder of modern science but also the originator of the mechanics of materials.

In the 17th Century A.D. , Sir Isaac Newton(1642-1727), invented the fundamental principles of Structural Analysis, an English mathematician and physicist, and one of the Greatest Scientists in history who ever lived. His discoveries and theories laid the foundation for much of the progress in the science.

Sir Isaac Newton was one of the inventors of the branch of mathematics called Differential and Integral CALCULUS (The other was German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz). Newton also formulated 3 laws of motion, and from them the universal law of Gravitation. To develop his Theory of Gravitation, Newton had to develop the Science of FORCES and MOTION called MECHANICS.

Starting about 1665, at the age of 23, newton enunciated (pronounce, speak) the principles of mechanics, formulated the law of Gravitation; viz.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Newton developed the Laws of Inertia and Motion which become the fundamental principles used in structural analysis.
  1. The first law of motion; an object at rest tends to remain at rest; an object in motion tends to in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an outside force. The development of physics owes much to Newton's Law of motion, notably the
  2. second law...... "the force acting on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration", F = m*a ;
  3. and the third Law of motion; for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Before real advances could be made with structural analysis. It was necessary for the science of mechanics of materials to be developed. By the middle of 19th century, much progress had been made in this area. A French physicist Charles Augustine Coulomb (1736-1806) and a French engineer-mathematician Louis Marie Henri Navier (1785-1836), building upon the work of numerous other investigations over hundreds of years, are said to have founded the Science of Mechanics of Materials, and often considered the founder of modern Structural Analysis. Navier published a textbook in 1826, in which he discussed the strength of and deflections of beams, columns, arches, suspension bridges, and other structures.

Andrea Palladio (1518-1580), an Italian architect, is thought to have been the first person to use modern trusses, although his is not rational. He may have revived some ancient types of Roman structures and their empirical rules for proportioning them and probably sized the members by RULES of THUMB, but after his time trusses were forgotten for 200 years, until they were reintroduced by Swiss designer Ulric Grubermann.

Designed by Andrea Palladio
It was actually in 1847, the first rational method of analyzing jointed trusses was introduced by Squire Whipple (1804 -1888) of United States. Squire Whipple was a Civil Engineer born in Hardwick, Massachusetts USA. This was the first significant American contribution to structural theory. Several excellent methods for calculating deflections were published in the 1860s and 1870s which further accelerated the rate of structural analysis development. He has become known the father of iron Bridge building in America.

Squire Whipple Bridge -Tourist, students on top of bridge
Squire Whipple's Bridge, Normans kill, Schenectady, NY, USA -1867

Among the important investigators and accomplishments were: James Clerk Maxwell(1831-1879) of Scotland, for the Reciprocal Deflection theorem in 1864; Otto Mohr(1835-1918) of Germany for Elastic Weights in 1870; Alberto Castigliano of Italy for Least Work theorem in 1873; Charles E. Green of the United States for the Moment-Area theorems in 1873; B.P.E Clapeyron of France for the Three-Moment theorem in 1857.

In the United States of America two great developments in Statistically Indeterminate Structure Analysis were made by GEORGE A. MANEY (1888-1947) and HARDY CROSS (1885-1959).

Civil Engineer Hardy Cross, P. E.

GEORGE A. MANEY introduced Slope Deflection method in 1915 at University of Minnesota engineering publication. In Germany, BENDIXEN introduced Slope Deflection in 1914. For nearly 15 years, until the introduction of Moment Distribution, Slope Deflection was the popular method used for the Analysis of continuous beams and frames in the United States of America.

A very common method used for the approximate analysis of continuous concrete structures, was the Moment and Shear Coefficient developed by the H. M. Westergaard and W. A. Slater a member of the American Concrete Institute in 1926-1929, particularly method 2 in ACI 318-1963. In 1921 Westergaard and Slater published the "Moments and Stresses in Slab."

In 1929 H. Marcus a German Engineer developed Method 3 of 1963 ACI Code moment coefficient based on elastic analysis, but also account for inelastic redistribution, and widely used in Europe, it was introduced in the United States by P. Rogers in 1944 (Two -way Reinforced concrete Slab).

Another most common approximate method of analyzing building frames for LATERAL LOADS such as winds, earthquake (seismic) is the PORTAL method which was presented by Albert Smith in the Journal of the Western Society of Engineers in 1915. Another simple method of analyzing building frames for Lateral Loads is the Cantilever method presented by A.C. Wilson in engineering record, 1908. These methods are said to be satisfactory for buildings with height not in excess of 25 to 35 stories.

In the first half of the 20th century A.D., many complex structural problems were expressed in mathematical form, but sufficient computing power was not available for practically Solving the resulting EQUATIONS and/or FORMULAS. This situation continued in the 1940s, when much work was done with MATRICES for analyzing aircraft structures. Fortunately, the development of digital computers made practical the use of equations and FORMULAS for these and many other types of Structures, including High rise Buildings.

Jack C. McCormac has stated it eloquently as follows:
All of us, unfortunately, have the weakness of making exasperating mistakes, and the best that can be done is to keep them to the absolute minimum.
The best structural designer is not necessarily the one who makes the fewest mistakes initially, but probably is the one who discovers the largest percentage of his or her mistakes and corrects them.1
Hence, in my research and study for almost two decades, it is seems IRONIC that the COLLEGE Student of TODAY can LEARN in a FEW MONTHS the Theories and Principles of STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS that took HUMANKIND SEVERAL THOUSAND YEARS to DEVELOP.

  • Member: American Concrete Institute (ACI)
  • Member: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
  • Member: Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE)

References - All books below are on the shelves in my Personal Library for additional sources of background information:
  1. Structural Analysis by Jack C. McCormac and J. K. Nelson Jr., 1997;
  2. Civil Engineering Magazine of ASCE, Soaring Toward the Heavens (Great Pyramid at Giza) by Craig B. Smith, Ph.D. Volume 74, No. 11, November 2004;  
  3. Design of Concrete Structures by Arthur H. Nilson, 1997;
  4. Structural Design Data and Specifications by Abelardo B. Carrillo 6th edition -1980;
  5. Elementary Structural Analysis by C. H. Norris, J. B.Wilbur and S. Utku, 3rd edition -1976;
  6. Engineering Mechanics by Ferdinand L. Singer, 3rd edition-1975;
  7. Elementary Theory of Structures by Chu-Kia Wang and Clarence l. Eckel -1957;
  8. Theory of Plates and Shells by Professor S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, 2nd edition -1959;
  9. Cyclopedia of Civil Engineering -American Technical School by Frederick E. Turneaure, 8 volumes -1928;
  10. Mechanics' and Engineers' -Mechanics, Mathematics and Physics by Chas H. Haswell, 1079 pages-Seventy Eight Edition-1930;
  11. Applied Mechanics for Engineers by J. Duncan -1926;
  12. Applied Mechanics (Strength and Elasticity of Materials, Theory of Structures) by David Allan Low -1909;
  13. Applied Mechanics (general introduction to the theory of Structures and Machines) by James H. Cotterill, 1st edition -1884, 6th edition -1906;
  14. Analytical Mechanics for Engineers by Fred B. Seely and Newton E. Ensign -1921;  
  15. Structural Mechanics by Charles E. Greene, 1st, 2nd, 3rd editions-1897 to 1909;
  16. Graphics for Engineers, Architects, Builders-Trusses and Arches, Part 1, 2 and 3 by Charles E. Greene, 1878;
  17. An Elementary and Practical Treatise on BRIDGE BUILDING by SQUIRE WHIPPLE, C. E. (Inventor of Whipple Bridge) -2nd edition -1872 and 1873;
  18. General Theory of BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION  by Prof. HERMAN HAUPT, C. E., 1st edition-1851, 1865, 1878;
  19. A Treatise on BRIDGE Architecture by Thomas Pope -1811;
  20. Engineering Construction in STEEL and TIMBER by William Henry Warren, 2nd edition -1910;
  21. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by ISAAC NEWTON-Translated into English by Andrew Motte, 1st edition -1846;
  22. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by ISAAC NEWTON-Andrew Motte, volume 2-1803;
  23. Mechanics of Engineering volume 1, 2 and 3, by Irving P. Church, C.E., 8th edition-1893, 1894, 1895; 9th edition -1905 and 1908 and 1911;
  24. Mechanics of Engineering volume 2 -(The Stresses in Framed Structures, Strength of Materials and Theory of Flexure), by A. Jay Dubois, C.E., PhD, 1st edition -1902;
  25. Mechanics of Materials by George Young, Jr. and Hubert E. Baxter -1927;
  26. Strength of Materials by Arthur Morley, 3rd edition -1913, 4th edition -1916;
  27. The Elements of Mechanics of Materials by Charles E. Houghton, 1st edition -1909, 2nd edition -1915;
  28. Mechanics of Materials by Mansfield Merriman, 10th edition -1910, 11th edition -1914 and 1916;
  29. A text-Book on the Mechanics of Materials (Beams, Columns and Shafts) by Mansfield Merriman, 1st edition -1885, 4th edition -1892, 8th edition -1899, 9th edition -1903;
  30. A text-Book on Roof and Bridges by Mansfield Merriman and Henry S. Jacoby, Parts 1, 2, 3 and 4, 5th edition -1903;
  31. The Principles of Mechanics by William Emerson, 3rd edition -1773;
  32. The Principles of Structural Mechanics by Percy J. Waldram, 1912;
  33. Mechanics of Building Construction by Henry Adams -1912;
  34. The first, second, third and fourthbook of Architecture by Andrea Palladio, 1755;
  35. The elements of Civil Architecture-Andrea Palladio-Vitruvius by Henry Aldrich -1824;
  36. The Builder's Director or Bench Mate -Andrea Palladio, by Batty Langley, July 14, 1746;
  37. History of Architectural Development, volumes 1, 2 and 3, by F. M. Simpson -1913;
  38. Theory of Structures and Strength of Materials by Henry Bovey, 1st edition-1893, second edition-1896, 884 pages-3rd edition-1900;
  39. The Theory of Structures by Charles M. Spofford-1911;
  40. Theory of Structures by Arthur Morley 5th edition -1912;
  41. The Elements of Structures by George A. Hool, 1st edition-1912;
  42. Bridge and Structural Design by W. Chase Thompson -1905; 
  43. Practical Structural Design by Ernest McCullough, 2nd edition -1921;
  44. Manual of Structural Design by Jack Singleton, 3rd edition -1947;
  45. Principles of Structural Engineering C. K. Smoley -1928
  46. Structural Designer's Handbook by William Fry Scott -1904;
  47. Structural Design by Horace R. Thayer, volume 1-1912;
  48. Structural Engineers' Handbook: Data for the Design and Construction of Steel Bridges and Buildings by Milo S. Ketchum, 1st edition -1914; 2nd edition -1918, 3rd edition -1924;
  49. Specification Standards by John Ostrup-1910;
  50. Structural Engineering by A. W. Brightmore -1908;
  51. Structural Engineering by J. Husband and W. Harby-1911;
  52. Structural Engineering by John Edward Kirkham, 1st edition-1914;
  53. Structural Engineering -Steel Designing, Book 3, by Edward Godfrey -1913;
  54. Structural Engineering -Strength of Materials by George F. Swain, volume 1, 1st edition-1924;
  55. Structural Engineering -Fundamental Properties of Materials by George F. Swain, volume 2,1st edition-1924;
  56. Structural Engineering -Stresses, Graphical Statics and Masonry by George F. Swain, volume 3-1924;
Relevant Web Sites: The following external links opens new window, engineer's standpoint is not responsible for their content nor endorses it.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

The Beautiful River Turns to Dangerous Weir Dam

Sooner! I will post about Weir Dam in our beautiful river of  Mondragon..Wait, wait!

This is the Sample for a Weir Dam

Friday, October 14, 2011

HARDY CROSS METHOD- Structural Analysis

My passion for Structural Engineering, I focused my sight to delve into many books for Structural Analysis and Design calculations, so most of the time given to me by God, I used to study and to research the history of this interesting major major (venus raj expression miss universe 4th runner up) subjects in civil engineering, viz.
  1. Structural Reinforced Concrete Design,
  2. Structural Steel Design,
  3. Timber Design;
  4. Foundation Analysis and Design;
  5. Engineering Mechanics;
  6. Strength of Materials (Mechanics of Materials);
  7. Soil Mechanics;
  8. Theory of structures;
  9. Hydraulics;
  10. Differential and Integral CALCULUS;
  11. Physics;
  12. Analytic Geometry;
  13. Trigonometry;
  14. Algebra.

Having a lot of experiences in life, and my passion for structural engineering, I was challenged to make research and study continuously particularly structural engineering. Fortunately, I have collected and acquired many books, design codes for civil engineers valued in USDollar, namely;
  1. ACI-2008- Manual of Concrete Practice,
  2. ACI-2004- ACI Design handbook,
  3. ACI Detailing Manual, 2004;
  4. ACI-318-2008 Building Code Requirements for Structural concrete;
  5. CRSI DESIGN HANDBOOK, 10th edition, 2008;
  6. British Steel Designer's Manual 6th edition,
  7. American Steel Construction manual 13th edition, 2005;
  8. National Structural Code of the Philippines, 2001 edition, 2010 edition, etc.
  9. Numerous Historic Reinforced Concrete Books as early 1903 to 1929.
  10. Numerous Historic Books for Structural Theory and Mechanics of Engineering; e.g. Mechanics of Materials, Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, An Essay on Bridge Buildings, circa A. D. 1700  to 1929.    
ACI Design Handbook, Volume 2
Actually, since 1995, I started collecting books and studied most of the time if no projects to be supervised. In my eagerness to acquire more knowledge, I focused my mind and sight to study and research the structural analysis and design calculation methods to make works easier for civil / structural engineers and structural designers.

I have a friend having utmost desire in structural analysis and design computations, construction and claiming for cleverness and expertise in construction, this friend of mine is not really a recognized Structural Engineer by Profession Regulation Commission or by Philippine Institute of Civil Engineers (PICE), but he is just a practicing engineer; Fabian, he is used to design simple buildings, he constructed some buildings in Catarman town, but I doubted his way of designing concrete columns because he uses balance condition in concrete column design, it should be noted that the actual condition of concrete column must be used to determine the strength capacity; and he has the effrontery of criticizing other design engineers.

I had met a lot of people with different characters and personalities, the SCRUFFY, the CLEAN, the INCOMPLETE, the DEFENSIVE ones, the NONCHALANT and the BRILLIANT ones. As much as there are differences in people's character, so is there, in their works and calculations. Also, to mention, through social networking I have acquired computer software, e.g. Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets software for design, and adopted their procedures, methodology and style with some modification to suit my satisfaction and method of analysis. Further, through social networking I had learned to develop Spreadsheets for my analysis and design since 2006 up to present, I am self taught in Microsoft Excel and had developed frames and beams analysis, concrete beams, concrete columns, footings in metric versions.

I used to think that being a practicing engineer for almost two decades, I surmise myself as a Structural design engineer already, like for instance professor Besavilla who authored reviewer books, and also Gillesania also authored reviewer books, my friend Redeem Legaspi a software programmer who developed steelpro program, they are all considered structural engineer. Accordingly, in my in-depth study and research, I had learned various methods for Structural Analysis in 'Hand' or conventional method with the aid of calculator and also using computer software, namely;
  1. MS-Excel Spreadsheets software,
  2. STAAD software,
  3. PCA software,
  4. ETABS, SAP2000, SAFE design software.
In my almost 20 years of experience as practicing engineer with continuous research, study, practice solving for building frames/beams and bridge structures, I have acquired knowledge and become Structural design engineer. Henceforth, as structural designer or engineer and specialist, I prefer to use the method developed by Professor Hardy Cross the Moment Distribution.

Civil Engineer Hardy Cross, P.E.
HARDY CROSS method (innovation) is the best method (for me) for Structural Analysis and Design Calculation, developed by Professor Hardy Cross in 1924. He published the method in the proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers in May 1930 after having taught the subject to his students at the University of Illinois since 1924. His Paper began a new era in the Analysis of Statically indeterminate frames and gave added impetus to their use. This method can be used in complex building frames, continuous beams and simple beams and or vertical structures.

Uniformly Distributed Load:
M = W(L^2)/12 for fixed end moment

Concentrated Load or Point Load:
M = Pa(b^2)/L^2 fixed end moment
M = Pb(a^2)/L^2 fixed end moment

Prof. Hardy Cross method was a popular method and was used for the Analysis of Continuous Beams and Frames and in Structural Engineering as a "Hand Calculations method and/or Conventional Calculations method" from 1930 until 1960. Since the 1960s, however, there has been an ever increasing use of computers for the analysis of all types of structures. Computers are extremely efficient for solving the simultaneous equations that are generated by other methods of analysis. Generally, computers software used is developed from the matrix-analysis procedures. Reference: J. C. McCormac, S.E., Structural Analysis.

I developed a MS Excel spreadsheet for Continuous Span Frame Analysis using Hardy Cross method:

Distribution Factor Formula
FBD of a Beam subjected to uniformly loaded at distance L
FBD of a Beam segment at distance X
Frame diagram of  MS Excel Spreadsheet I developed
Moment distribution table of  MS excel spreadsheet I developed
Shear Diagram of my own MS Excel Spreadsheets
Moment Diagram for my own MS Excel Spreadsheet

Wednesday, October 5, 2011


Here is a glimpse of local politics in my Hometown based on my personal knowledge and experiences:

On September 2009 two (2) times I was invited by Mayor my boss to his residence, but because of my resentment (precisely not pride) to him and to his Vice Mayor, who were indifferent to my requests:

My first request, was additional remuneration (for projects in DPWH or elsewhere, having heard with a frustrating story from Willy Rempillo that my requested project at my father's Barangay [village] Imelda would be given to Mr. Matias Cabalitan), and then an annoying remarks of Mr. Willy Rempillo (envious person) when he said to me I quote!

"Uncle Olpior Conge wants to use your license as Sustaining Technical Employee (STE) and/or engineer for contractor's license at the Philippine contractors accreditation board (PCAB), because you're NOT considered government employee anymore, since you are now a contractual employee for KALAHI-CIDSS. In my disgust to Willy Rempillo, I informed them (Evelyn, Willy) that I advised and warned 2 times already Engr. Vio Villadolid not to obtrude and insist himself for the Street Lighting/ Highway Lamp Post (Php2Million) because he is not a relative of Mayor Bugna, and not even a brother-in law, and that this project was already given to Mr. Marlito Bugna, brother of the mayor. Was it bad to tell them my advice to Engr. Vio (my brother in-law).

Imagine! I'll be hired by them as contractor's employee only! Whaah!! I went to Mr. willy Rempillo and told them (Nadulo ak na! diri puede na lahat ng problema kan Nora! ako an TADTARAN!), I told him I'm FED UP, ANNOYED, DISGUSTED already I don't like to be a chopping board.

I have uttered these words! because I was surmising that gradually they are discarding me and throwing me aside in a corner.

Second, a suggestion only to implement the projects in consonance with the standard procedures, but they (their people) do not mind about scientific methods of construction, design and analysis (computations), I had declined to his invitation, I did not report to him anymore as a hired employee to review plans and cost estimates and a signatory of the DSWD-kalahi-cidss projects, because I had experienced to be humiliated by somebody (Mr. Rongcales foreman/carpenter a layman person, pretended to be all knowing person a pedantic, who did not finish even high school, my boss allowed him to supervise the construction of the overflowing drainage canal), who are more closer to Mayor Ismael Bugna, Jr. than I am! I had the opportunity to complain to Mayor, but he said to me "don't interfere!" (AYAW PAGLABOT sa Brgy. Eco.! in local waray-waray dialect) and then he grimaced his face and frowned (nanyam-id) to me as a manifestation of dislike and/or displeased, because the implementer was his brother (my Pade) as barangay captain of Baranagy Eco, who did not care about the correct construction methods and it had resulted to overflowing of drainage canal and flooding of the poblacion barangay (village), I knew fully well and clearly understood as clear as sunshine and fresh water the procedures of my pade Marlito Bugna to implement his projects, with due respect to him. It had occurred to me to sue the person who was close to Mayor for oral defamation for humiliating an engineer. I suffered mental anguish. Finally, I decided to better let God avenge for me, because I believed in bible saying and teaching; Book of Romans, it says "Don't avenge by yourselves, beloved, but yield place to the wrath, for it is written: "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says Jehovah God."

I (myself), my father and my family were an outspoken, diehard supporter of the Liberal Party, the Congressman Paul R. Daza, Governor Raul A. Daza, Mayor Ismael Bugna Jr. for almost two(2) decades.

Here are some stories!

On May 2004 local and national election, on Saturday 3 days before election my Padi Toto came to our house and made a deal with me if I have funds to help him in the election, he said, "if you have cool ak siton!" "if I won the election MORE projects will be given to those who could help me." so I told him I have a little money only as contracting engineer! my prime purpose at that time was not to employ but to have projects only. Hence, I had contributed forty five (45) cases of tanduay rum wines (worth Php10,000.00), plus Php50,000.00 cash to Mayor Ismael Bugna Jr. for his mayoralty campaign and to the Liberal Party, we used the cash to buy votes in barangay Imelda I knew this because I accompanied my father to buy votes. I was one of them (the group), when we distributed the money for buying the votes, even my car, my dump truck were used in the field, until midnight and beyond until 2:00 AM in the morning in distributing the money (my money) against the party of late Mayor Elito Dapulag and Vilma Torres.  He won as Mayor, my father was a Barangay captain at that time already, he supported the Liberal party and Mayor Bugna Jr. even his own money.

On May 2007 election we supported him again, my father supported him also being a diehard supporter, again I supported him in terms of money a small amount (almost Php30,000.00, if I’m not mistaken), my wife and I personally gave to him (some went through the hands of Mr. Ander Francisco). I was also the person who conducted special operation for Governor Daza - Congressman Daza in buying the votes in Barangay Imelda with the help of Mr. Raul Mananguite as per order of Col. Tony Daza (brother of Congressman Daza), at the same time I accompanied my father in distributing the money for the Liberal Party until midnight, so claimants, like Mr. Baldonado, Nelia Ablazo and Rey Morillo (Rey Morillo was a supporter of Elito Dapulag and Vilma Torres in 2004 election) should not have claimed the sacrifices, and that they were the ones who helped the Liberal Party against the other Liberal Party wing of Congressman Harlin Abayon and late Mayor Elito Dapulag. The persons I mentioned who claimed that they have more sacrifices for the Liberal Party, did not spend even a single peso. But our personal money! my father also spent Php20,000.00, just to buy votes in that election (in 2007); It was just a small amount at least we contributed compared to others who didn’t contribute to the Liberal party, but unfortunately, got more favor from him and harvested more fruits from the Liberal party. Sorry for the unfortunate people like my family!

In one occasion (at 7:00 PM on May 4, 2007- date verified) at the compound of Mayor Bugna, I observed the boastfulness attitude of Mr. Matias and Mrs. Benie Cabalitan, when I said to them! I have relatives in Brgy. Hinabangan (a far flung Barangay of Mondragon), but I was surprised the answer of these two persons, they spoke at the same time your family is small family only (ditoy la iton didto)! not big family! So I did not answer anymore because these two husband and wife are braggart and arrogant. The words uttered by these two husband and wife made me upset and aggrieved, so I kept it in my heart and kept it as a challenge for my family.

Sometime in January to February 2008, I was ordered by the Mayor (Bugna) to make program of works for Road Concreting from Bugko -Nenita, and Nenita to San Antonio, and San Jose amounting to 200 millions pesos including Farm to market roads, I diligently done and fagged all these program of works, the program of works were submitted by Mayor Bugna Jr. to Congressman (Governor) Paul Daza for funding purposes. I was hoping that when funds for these projects become available (ready for implementation), I will be a part of the implementation, but unfortunately I was not included anymore even a single project.

On February 2008, I had implored the mayor to recommend me to Congressman Daza to get projects at the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Northern Samar, Philippines as per advice of my friends and Kumpadre for a three (3) rooms school buildings intended for Makiwalo Integrated School and F. Dominice High School both of these projects are for Mondragon. As I reckoned, I said to him as I sat down in front of him in his office “Mayor please help and recommend me to Congressman Daza and to the DPWH for projects, because I have some obligations to settle” he then answered to me, I quote! “I myself also have so many debts and obligations” immediately he picked up his mobile phone and called the Asst. DE and he said I quote! Engineer! I will let one of my engineer to meet you, he is Engineer (M), ikaw na bahala diyan! So at 11 o’clock in the morning I went hastily to the DPWH office. There at the DPWH office, I met the ADE and showed to him the list of projects I had brought in my hand, e.g. 2- rooms school building for Makiwalo Integrated School and 1- room school building for F. Dominice High School, he replied to me "these projects have no SARO yet and the funds have not yet arrived.” After a few minutes, he told me that there is a proposed water supply project in Mondragon, he suggested me to help them to find the good source and in the planning, and these should have a sustainability, and potability water source. In my astonishment! shortly after 20 minutes, Mr. Cabalitan (the vice mayor) arrived at the office of the ADE, I had no idea at that instant, that he would come there at the DPWH office, and he sat down in front of me, then he told me in a sarcastic remarks, I quote! “If I were you! you better look for another job you are structural engineer and designer, and there is no other position for you at the Local Government Unit office, it is only for one engineer, we cannot create a position for you, you better run for Councillor, so we could campaign jointly! "and you had made remarks in a party that you have seventy thousand pesos for Nora Cananua as per Mr. Wilfredo Rempillo story."

*** For the information of those people (Mati Cabalitan) this seventy thousand was a barangay project (repair of day care center and basketball goal with budget of seventy thousand pesos) of my father in barangay Imelda, which Nora Cananua had refused to sign, hence my father sought the help instead of late Mayor Dapulag to facilitate the release of the payment through the municipal accountant and the resident auditor, this happened sometime in February 2005 to May 2005 and the project was paid on May 8, 2005 with the help of late Mayor Dapulag instead in one day transaction. Despite of the facts that we asked help from Mayor Bugna, nothing happened. Also, my father asked help from Mr. Cabalitan when he was a councilor but nothing happened.***

I felt insulted and annoyed of his remarks, so I answered to him! “if I run for any elective position I will run with the opposition party, I am an engineer!" I felt afflicted and hurt of this (in local dialect "Nasul-an ak!"). His purpose of annoying me in front of the ADE was to discourage me not to obtrude myself and to cling to the Mayor as supporter may be, and he was envious of me (in local dialect: awaon' naawa' or kaawa') why I was asking for projects from Mayor Bugna? This was my personal viewpoint. And so I left that office and went home with a pique to Mr. vice Mayor. I had awaited for the Mayor (my boss) to confide to him what had occurred at the office of the ADE-DPWH Catarman. At 7 o’clock in the evening on that day I met the Mayor and told him of his vice mayor sarcastic remarks to me. He told me "Did you not tell him that you are not yet the Mayor?" Reluctantly he said to me again "while I am the Mayor don’t leave! Then he said! okay I will take a rest I’m tired!"

Sometimes on March 26, 2008, I met my friends in Catarman just to interact with them. They reminded me about the projects and asked me what was the result of the recommendations I asked from the Mayor (my boss), I couldn't answer to them candidly because I was embarassed before. So, the following day on March 27, 2008, as early as 6 o’clock in the morning I went back to Mayor (my boss) to his residence to implore and to beg him again, as I recalled of what I’ve said to him “Mayor a call using mobile phone is enough to recommend me to Congressman.” As he was listening to me, he said and I quote "just wait for the news at 11:00 o’clock to 12:00 o’clock this day, and then call me about the results." So I went home and waited untill the time he set for me to call him, at 11:30 A.M. I called him using my mobile phone, He told me that “it is not good to transact and ask favour for projects using mobile phone call, we will meet him tomorrow morning at the Makiwalo Integrated School he is the guest speaker there, okay just go with me tomorrow there.” So, I said "yes Mayor tomorrow I’ll be there." I was hoping that he would recommend me to get projects as contractor engineer, (because I knew fully well my status as CASUAL employee as clear as mineral water with meager salary). Accordingly, the next day that was March 28, 2008 (verified date), I woke up as early as 4 o’clock in the morning, having told my wife I’ll be meeting the Congressman, and I took a bathe and dressed up to meet the Congressman at the Makiwalo Integrated School. So I went with the Mayor to Makiwalo Integrated School, at 8 o’clock in the morning Congressman Paul Daza arrived, the Mayor introduced me and said “Pade (he referred to Congressman) engineer is here,” Congressman Paul Daza said! “your father is my friend, where is he? I answered! He is now in Barangay Imelda! Congressman Daza said and I quote paki kumusta nala sa kanya! so I said “yes Sir! I will.!” Then afterwards he walked to the stage with Assistant division superintendent Gorgonio Diaz (who happened to be my cousin), the Mayor, vice Mayor, Barangay Captain, and the school principal. I had awaited untill the graduation rites finished. We had the lunch at the Barangay hall because it was already past 11 o’clock in the morning. After having lunch we went home, I had the ride with mayor (my boss), at their residence we conversed at the dining table only three (3) of us, and then he said “Congressman allowed me that all contractors for projects in our town will pass through me. I couldn’t forget the words and instruction of the Mayor to me, "there is a concreting project in barangay Nenita it is 10 million project, but I need money today. "Do you have financier?"I said" Yes! I have! "then he asked me if my financier could finance the project. "Who is he? I told him! “Mayor! 5 to 10 million pesos he could finance, he is my friend and godfather of my daughter, you know him." and he said and I quote! “You let us meet and talk this afternoon and tell him I need Php50, 000.00, I need to pay my debt, it's Friday today, and banks will close at 3 o’clock in the afternoon hurry up and tell them to withdraw before 3 o'clock (3 P.M). At 12 o’clock sharp, immediately I went to Catarman to contact my financier ("Kuno"- it was Edgar Lim) to ask him to lend money to Mayor Bugna, but Mr. Edgar Lim has no money at that time, hence they borrowed from Engr. Lope Dorado with the reason as being said by Mr. F. Cardenas that its the same because we are one. It had occurred that at 6:30 o’clock in the evening, we brought the money in the amount of fifty thousand pesos (Php50, 000.00) to his residence, Mr. Dorado was the one who handed-over the money to Mayor Bugna, so he received the full amount. At the same time Lope Dorado dare to ask the recommendation of Mayor Bugna Jr. to recommend him to Congressman Paul Daza. And, hoping that I would be a part of the project I waited from April to May 28, 2008, the date of bidding of the 10 million road concreting project. I was not aware that he got an advance SOP (Million pesos) of said project from a certain engineer Dorado (I've mentioned the name because I knew him). Despite of my efforts to ask projects from Congressman Paul Daza, I got 0 as in Zero = 0.

The saddest story was on November 2, 2008 (date verified): The order of Mayor Bugna to me to accompany the Engineers and Surveyor from Provincial government and Provincial engineering office (Jennifer Evangelista, Joan Balasta, David Dorico) to conduct the sourcing of potable water supply for the three (3) interior barangays (villages), Hinabangan, Cahicsan, Cagmanaba the far flung villages 20 to 30 kilometers from town proper of Mondragon. So, because of my consideration and being compliant I obeyed him, I shouldered the expenses, amounting to Ph3,000.00 pesos, we took the ride on boat to reach the area, for three (3) days we stayed at the village. On November 3, 2008, with the chairwoman Evelyn Morillo, we climbed the mountain of Hinabangan village (elevation of the mountain) was 84 meters above sea level to make ocular inspection of the site of spring water, then on the following day we went and proceeded to Cahicsan village and then met the chairwoman and conducted the sourcing of potable spring water, we went to the site on foot (Hipat brook) then immediately we proceeded to Cagmanaba village approximately 30 kilometers from town proper, the elevation of the barangay was 36 meters above sea level, with the help of the Chairman Mr. Rudy Pinca, we went to the site on foot approximately 800 meters from the village, to have a visual/occular inspection of the spring water, the villagers were happy to see us because they expected to have a good drinking water. After 3 days we went back home, we took a ride on a motorized banca (I paid Php1,500.00 one way).  Unfortunately, when I tried to reimburse my expense, I was only allowed by the Budget officer to reimburse Ph200.00 pesos per day as per diem, so in my disgust I did not reimburse my expenses to protest this kind of attitude, envious (mga awaon -in local dialect). My right foot and left foot fingernails were peeled off because we footed to the site of spring water sources. How disgusting...!!!

Another story: On May 2009, for four (4) years of working with Mayor Bugna I had the chance to work Ph500 thousand street concreting project partnered with Marlito Bugna as a complimentary only (maybe), everything he managed even the disposal of excess cements 250 bags.

Another story: Here it is! On February 2009, I asked projects from Mayor Bugna while I was signing the Ph10 millions KALAHI-CIDSS projects, so he said I quote " You tell ABC Marlito that I am giving to you the Ph1 million street concreting project in Brgy. Eco, and tell him that I am committed to you," hence, I hurriedly went to Marlito Bugna being excited and told him the commitment of Mayor Bugna to me. But, the Ph1Million project was reduced to Ph500 thousand only because he gave to Mr. Rogelio Diaz the other Ph500 thousand, so I let it passed because I have nothing to do because he is a brother of the mayor.

Another story: was for the project in Brgy. Imelda, in my father's barangay (village) a street concreting at baybay street, I asked this project from Mayor Ismael Bugna while I was signing in front of him (Bugna) the Ph10,000,000.00 KALAHI-CIDSS projects, the third cycle; apparently Mr. Matias Cabalitan was also asking this project. Sometime in August 2009 Mr. Wilfredo Rempillo told me that this project was not being acted upon by Nora Cananua because she (Nora) knew that I was the one who will work on this project; although street cementing projects in Barangay Chitongco and Eco were already implemented and paid amounting to Ph5 millions given to Mr. Olpior Conge and Marlito Bugna. The worst scenario (problem) was that, the street concreting project was also being asked by Mr. Matias Cabalitan, so I was very angry and became restless, I was not able to control my pique and resentment to them, why he is not contented with his projects given by Mayor Bugna (Mondragon Public Market -Php3Millions, Street cementing at Makiwalo-Php500T, Bagsakan at old public market-Php400T, etc.). what a man ..G?

On April 2010 after almost one year this project was implemented by Lito Custorio and Mr. Cabalitan;

In my sense this was bygone days, and so, "let bygone be bygone." and I felt sorry for them if I am obtrusive (makulit) of my request for favor from them and made hostile comments for them.

I was in a reminiscence at that instant, because of my lamentations; my former partner Engr. Fabian Cardenas offered me to supervise his contract four(4) story commercial building; owned by Atty. Camara, I don't know the real intentions of my kumpadre Fabie; coincidentally Board member Jun Rosales a former 3 terms Mayor of Catarman visited me to our house personally and convinced me to help him in the campaign for the congressional seat for the first district of Northern Samar with a promise that he will help me to have a better work and/or he will give me projects to work as contractor. Subsequently, I had accepted the offer of Board member Jun Rosales, he assigned me as the municipal coordinator, also, at the same time I helped  Engr. Vio R. Villadolid ( my brother in-law) a professional electrical engineer, a candidate for board member, an incumbent municipal councilor of Mondragon. Accordingly, I declined and forgot the offer of Engr. Cardenas.

Moreover, I helped the campaign of Jun Rosales for congressman in more than than one(1) month I went to all 24 barangays and visited my relatives, classmate, friends, I had made drinking and tossing of glasses of beer, tanduay wines , coconut wine "tuba a native wine)" with a promise that if Jun Rosales wins as congressman I can recommend them for health and medicines, works, infra whatever I can help them. Hence, the result was good; Board member Jun Rosales and former Governor Harlen Abayon got bigger votes and  Board member Jun Rosales had almost defeated Deputy Speaker Raul Daza and Governor Paul Daza, We had inflicted the Liberal Party, ingenuity, cleverness of the undefeated Raul Daza and Paul Daza a friend of my father and his boss.

Consequently, because of the result of the May 10, 2010, local and national election in our town of Mondragon, Mayor Ismael Bugna, Jr. our godfather (as wedding principal sponsor) got angry to me, because Governor Raul A. Daza scolded him about the election result, because he did not fulfill his promise to Governor Raul Daza that he will manage and give a big margin of loses, he promised five (5) thousand more votes against Jun Rosales and Former Congressman Harlen Abayon. Unfortunately, the Daza's had won by one thousand plus more votes only against Board member and former mayor Jun Rosales and former governor/congressman Harlen Abayon.

Hence, Mayor Ismael Bugna, Jr. politicized every moves and retaliated. He blocked the promotions of my wife an elementary school Principal promotable for elementary school Principal 3 by visiting the office of the head of office. He campaigned against my father in the October 26, 2010, barangay election, but he didn't make it, his candidate for barangay captain lost, and luckily my father won the election for the third time by 126 votes against the protege "Bata -Bata" of Mayor Bugna whom he bet. He made discourse 2 times in Brgy. Imelda (village) in front of the 4 P'S Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino beneficiaries (inside of a cockpit arena and a meeting place of 4 P's) urging them not to vote my father instead he urged to vote Mr. Julio De guia as Brgy. Captain and Bernie Baldonado and his party.

Our query will be: who are most HONORABLE political figures, governors, congressmen, mayors, vice- mayor, that deserve and possess merit respect among HONORABLE politicians in Mondragon and also Northern Samar? Nobody knows of course!

Now, let us look and analyze and make comments on the personalities of politicians, if who are most HONORABLE amongst the HONORABLE persons and deserve respect from the people of Mondragon and Northern Samar province in general. I will provide the names and data each one of them in my personal knowledge.


Hon. Harlen Castillo Abayon:

Governor of Northern Samar 1987-1998; First district Congressman, 1998-2007; a lawyer by profession, member of the Liberal Party and shifted to LAKAS-KAMPI-CMD party in the recent 2010 election and lost to Governor Paul Daza. He sponsored and funded the construction of Catarman Bridge 2 (php200 million), and 78 km. road from Catarman to Calbayog City via Lope de Vega (php650 million)

Hon. Francisco "Jun" Rosales:

Mayor of Catarman from 1998-2007, and 6 years Board Member 1995-1998, 2007-2010, an engineer by profession, member of the LAKAS-KAMPI-CMD. He led the construction of the Catarman bus terminal, and public market slaughter house and developed the capital town of Northern Samar.

Hon. Aleta Rosales:

Mayor of Catarman from 2007-2010; wife of Francisco "Jun" Rosales, registered nutritionist, She lost in her bid for re-election under the LAKAS-KAMPI party. The Rosales's are good, considerate and gracious persons.

Hon. Raul A. Daza:

He is an incumbent Congressman 2010-present, Governor 2001-2010, Congressman, 1987-1998 first district of Northern Samar, he was a member of the 7th Congress(1969-1973), and self exiled to United States during the martial law, Deputy Minister of the PCGG (1986-1987),CPA-Lawyer by profession, member of the Liberal Party and former party president from 1994 to 1998. He ran for the senatorial race in 1998 but he lost. I, my father and my family had voted for him in 1987, 1992, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007. But in 2010 I did not for him.

Hon. Paul R. Daza:

He is an incumbent Governor of Northern Samar 2010-present; Congressman, 2007-2010, Board Member 2004-2007. He graduated cum laude of BS in Economics at the University of California of Los Angeles (UCLA), USA, a member of California state bar. He was a senior vice president of the Metro Railway Transit (MRT). He is the son of Congressman Raul Daza, member of the Liberal party and he is a friend of my father. I, my father and my family had voted for him in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010.

Hon. Ismael Bugna, Jr.:

He is an incumbent 3rd termer Mayor of Mondragon 2004-present, Vice Mayor from 1995-2004. a graduate of BS Political Science in UEP Catarman, he is most trusted of Governor Paul Daza. The mayor is extremely loyal to Governor Paul Daza being the source of fund in any election. He is a magniloquent, grandiloquent, a Glib person and politician in our town. He could tame leaders and persons by offering wines even as early as 6:00 o'clock in the morning, he used to drink beer as his way of entertaining barangay leaders and all his friends. He has many salaried men (errand boys) for his intelligence purposes, his "eyes and ears". Hence, he listens everything, whatever his "eyes and ears" will tell/speak and report to him, and he is surrounded by many instigators and/or inciter persons (manunulsol) "listo sumutab" in local dialect, my father called them as he recounted, "mga listo sumutab" even to the prejudice, to the detriment of others. He hires many job orders during election period to ensure his victory. Finally, he is surrounded by many sycophants just to get favors from him to ask works with salary ranging from php80.00 to php120.00 pesos per day.

In one occasion at the mayor's residence, I have seen a manifestation of the mayor's smooth, soft spoken but overbearing, the peremptory attitude . On August 4, 2007, at 7:00 PM (date to be verified), the date and time when he commanded/ordered me to make the analysis (computation) of the footbridge in Barangay Talolora, and then sign the documents. Indeed, the preparation of plans, cost estimates and structural analysis and design are the works of the kalahi-cidss engineers from regional office, unfortunately the fact and reality they (kalahi-cidss engineers) don't know how to make the Structural ANALYSIS (computations) and Design Calculations, because of inexperienced in actaul practice. My task and/or job was to review and affix my signature only. Instead, he insisted that I should be the one to make analysis and sign promptly, and he said to me, and I quote "Pusilon ta ikaw"- (in English dialect "I'll fire you! or I'll shoot you") if I don't obey", while he walked going to their kitchen. Obviously, who am I to disobey the boss? I surmised at that time he was joking only, but nevertheless, I hurriedly done the analysis and signed immediately without additional remuneration as what we've agreed when I (myself) and kalahi engineers, area coordinator talked and they promised, being my specialization. Were it not for him "the Mayor" I did not make the analysis, affixed my signature! It was for him "the Mayor" (out of consideration for my godfather and kumpadre), with due respect to him. Anyway this is bygone days, I let bygone be bygone.

He had won several elections, because majority of the voters believed that he is the one who could bring infrastructure projects to our town being close to governor Paul Daza, and people of Mondragon believe that he is a good person. Nevertheless, only God knows who are good persons and politicians? nobody knows, of course!; Clearly, only TIME will tell us who are most trustworthy to hold public office as public servant.

Matias Cabalitan:

He is an incumbent vice mayor 2007-present. 3 years councilor, a graduate of BS Agriculture Education in UEP Catarman, Philippines, most trusted and protege of Mayor Ismael Bugna, Jr. He thinks that he is more good than others, because he had worked in DPWH as laboratory technician.

He is the one who said to me on November 2007 (date to be verified), and I quote Analysis(computations) and design calculations are not necessary for footbridges, it is only a footbridge and the users are the villagers only. and he said again, I quote "if you do not affix your signature you better look for another job, you have high qualifications, in local dialect, I quote "AYAW SA AM didi" (go away from us), the municipal engineer is insecure of your qualifications. He was mentioning his favorite municipal engineer whom they could not compel, coerce to obey them and to sign the kalahi-cidss projects, they used me, they made me as their scapegoat; And, he was talking and referring about a footbridge with 11 meters span, with 66 meters length,  one of the kalahi-cidss sub-projects in barangay Talolora. At that point in time, he was compelling and coercing me to sign, affix my signature of the said footbridge project as per instruction of my boss to him, when he was an acting mayor. Notwithstanding there was a need for analysis, I had signed, affixed my signature immediately, all the kalahi-cidss sub-projects, and the local projects assigned to me, just to be good to my boss (Mayor Bugna Jr.) and be compliant to them. He was blocking me to get projects from DPWH. His wife was the one who underestimated and belittled me when she was a councilor in 1992 to 1995 just for a waiting shed construction in Makiwalo, because of the mistakes of the carpenters she put on to me all the blames, a Php50,000.00 (USD1,000.00) project only in exchange for my dignity and integrity. His wife a 10th grade student or high school graduate only questioned my credibility as engineer. I let bygone be bygone. I let God decide for him.

Hon. Arturo Q. Malobago

He is incumbent Barangay Captain in Barangay Imelda, 3 termer from 2002 up to present.

Hon. Marlito C. Bugna:

He is an incumbent 2nd termer barangay captain of barangay Eco, Mondragon from 2007-2013/present, member of the Liberal Party. Having puffed up (with pride), selfish person, envious, he makes innuendos and insults to his critics, it's because he is a brother of the Mayor. He is a graduate of bachelor of laws (but did not pass the bar exams, 3 times) elsewhere, and BS Customs Administration at PMI Manila. He is my kumpadre when we stood as principal sponsor in a weeding! But I can't blame him really because he is a brother of the Mayor, he has the back-up. He uttered sarcastic words when he told me that "don't interfere anyway you are not the LGU municipal engineer, you are just a signatory in lieu of her." And the item created intended for you was disapproved as he answered sarcastically to me! Then one instance he told me to keep away from Nora his engineer, He said I quote.

Do not come near to Nora's office" so I replied to him instantly, I didn't come to her office even once!

This happened when I suggested for the theodolite survey instrument for the levelling of drainage canal. Hence the project in his barangay Eco, the drainage canal was a failure and resulted to overflowing, see my previous blog post, the title is Hydraulic design and Juan Delacruz.

Saturday, October 1, 2011


UNFINISHED PROJECTS (HCAAP)... HANJIN Industries and Construction Ltd., the Korean contractor.

Timely, the NIA-HCAAP projects (Help for Catubig Agricultural Advancement Projects) in Catubig and Las Navas, Northern Samar, link map, Philippines. These projects are being funded through LOANS from Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA-JBIC) and government of the Philippines;

View Larger Map

A Glimpse of the projects:

First, the Catubig diversion dam and the Canals (completed sometime in June 2010 or May 2011) and the Canals and minor structures are not yet completed as of May 2011, the dam was discovered to have cracks due to flooding last December 2010 as Mr. Deodito Tejero was telling story about the cracks, while drinking beer at the office of JD Legaspi Const., and had undergone repair works undertaken by HANJIN. On the time while I was there the HANJIN was still constructing the CANALS and some minor structures even the contract was already finished because actually it was not really finished even the consultant the Japanese Mr. Toku was there always visiting and walking on the site as of May 2011;

The construction of Bulao diversion dam and Hagbay diversion dam under contract with HANJIN Industries and Construction Ltd., were terminated, the Bulao diversion Dam was rebid; and then;

Second, the Hagbay diversion Dam project at Sta. Fe, Catubig town, 10 kilometers away from town proper of Las Navas with poor, muddy and inaccessible road to reach the site, had been awarded last July 2, 2010 to Jesusito Legaspi Construction, wherein as of April 18, 2011 having a negative slippage (-16.6%) as per letter of the NIA Administrator and was subject for termination already, because the sub-contractor and the engineers (Mr. Danilo Maderazo, magna cum laude, former Professor of civil engineering at Divine Word University, former reviewer of Salazar engineering review center, first placer in the Geodetic engineers licensure exam, my professor) from Tacloban City and Enzo construction from Catbalogan Western Samar, had abandoned and left the Hagbay dam project, because when they made their "EVALUATION daw" they marked him as having No sufficient experiences in dam construction, and inadequate qualifications.

Hence, the main contractor Jesusito D. Legaspi construction has resorted to get a new sub-contractor from Catarman Northern Samar, henceforth, a protégé of Politicians or (we don't KNOW who are their back-ups?), had accepted the sub-con contract from Jesusito D. Legaspi construction, this sub-contractor did not make a clearer view, thorough study and did not make detailed estimates of the contract design plans, the works to be done, namely; major structures (DAM structures), bridge structure, minor structures (drainage canals, irrigation canals with access road and/or service road with the same length of the irrigation canals length (14.2 km.), intake boxes, crossing pipes, the length of drainage canals, etc. The sub-contractor is not a civil engineer but unlicensed mechanical graduate, bully, prideful and CRAFTY person, a new contractor one and 1/2 (1.5 year), Mr. Rikki Rubenecia. Unfortunately, he accepted the sub-con contract amount of (47.62%) out of ph231 Millions total contract amount by the main contractor, which is very obvious by a simple mind and layman analysis and understanding, that the sub-contract amount is only 47.62% of the total contract amount. hence, the projects would be finished using sub-standard materials and low quality project with the amount accepted by the sub-contractor.

Here are the crucial parts of my study and OBSERVATIONS:

I was too inquisitive and become curious, enquiring, why they were very prideful of their design, so I used my time to delve into details, in my in depth study of the design plans of the said projects, I discovered that the reinforced concrete design of the DAM Structures and Bridge Structures were not accurate as being bragged by the NIA engineers. If you read this blogpost it's a big question mark why?"a civil engineer also had worked there from year 2007 to June 2010 as one of the engineers and CAD operator". Accordingly, I was able to retrieve the Excel files of Danilo De Asis containing the Spreadsheets for DAM structures and Bridge Structures, namely; Catubig dam, Pinipisakan Bridge Flume, Hagbay dam and service Bridge, Bulao dam structural analysis and design computations. I reviewed and checked the spreadsheets calculations and the results are not good as being show off and pridefully bragged by Mr. Danilo de Asis, Prisco O. Boco III and Dennis Lozano. I discovered when I checked that the Chief designer Prisco O. Boco III and Amadeo Montejo had made mistakes in the applications of formulas and assumptions for Bridge Columns, Barrages piers, Sluice piers, T-Beams, R-Beams, Slabs; These are not altered copies all of these are authentic.

Hagbay Bridge Design using Spreadsheet, with Omega, w= 0.18, an Old Standard

Side Elevation of Bridge - 20 meters long

Section Detail of Hagbay Bridge included in the Hagbay Dam construction

Bridge Beam Rebars Details, adopted an OLD methods, using 45 degrees bent -up at L/4, the splice points were not considered to conform with new detailing method

Side view Detail of Rebars, using 45 degrees bent -up of main bars clearly an OLD Method of Detailing

They used Old standard, omega, w =0.18 and rho =0.18f'c/fy for control of deflection, clearly an old standard ACI 318-1963 Code provision, Chapter 15, section 1507-Control of Deflections, used until 1971 as midrange percentage reinforcement, rho=As/bd =0.18f'c/fy (although it is not distinctly advantageous value as Prof. James O. Jirsa commented in his book reinforced concrete fundamentals, Prof. J. Jirsa, ACI 318 Code committee member), which was evidently DISCARDED from the Code (revised ACI 318-1977 Code), also discarded from all publications of ACI 318 Code from 1989 to 2011, obviously more than 40 years time had elapsed already. The ACI 435-1978 - Control of Deflections in Concrete Structures, has recommended a limiting values of ratio rho. At the Introduction page of the ACI code states ACI 2011 was adopted as a standard of the ACI to SUPERSEDE ACI old editions in accordance with the institute's standardization procedure.

The LOAD COMBINATION you used was Working Stress Design (WSD), Group VII of the AASHO 1961-1974 editions;

Group VII = D + E + B + SF + EQ

The Load factor equal to 1.4 for dead load should be 1.3.

Then the Load Factor equal to 1.7 for Live Load is not correct, because this is applicable only to Gravity Loads for vertical structures and not applicable to TRUCK MOVING LOADS for bridges, the correct LOAD FACTOR (LF) is equal to =2.2, as per ACI 343R-95-Analysis and Design of RC Bridge structures and NSCP v2-1997, as per AASTHO-1973-Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. 

According to AASHTO 1975 to 1992, Load Factor Design, Group VII Load Combination was;

Group VII =y[ beta(e) *D + beta(e)*E + B + SF +EQ]

The Strength Reduction factor equal to phi =0.7 for Compression members (columns and also beams subject to compression force) which was applicable up through the ACI 318-99 Code, they have been changed to phi =0.65 for compression members beginning with ACI318-2002 Code and continuing with the ACI318-2005 and ACI318-2011 up to present... Let me educate you people there...!!! The standards you are using should be updated..

ACI 318-1963, published on June 1963

First, he used the 1963 and 1983 ACI 318 codes (American Concrete Institute) which are very obvious an obsolete ACI codes, which undergo major revisions every six (6) years and minor revisions in between;

Fig. 2a Pier Load calculation using 50% of 20 tonnes truck load
Fig. 2b Pier moving load analysis using 50% of  10 tonnes truck loads

Second, they used the AASHTO specifications (american association of state highway and transportation officials), the HS 20-1944 -8,000 lbs for front axle and 32,000 lbs for rear axles load and HS 10-1944 -4000 lbs front axle, 16000 lbs rear axle; in my review of their design they used only 50% of 20 tonnes and 10 tonnes truck load for the piers and columns analysis. Whereas, they used 100% of 20 tonnes and 10 tonnes truck load (HS 20, HS 10) for girders designs, which was a great blunder in design load calculations.

Hence, the Girders are stronger than Piers/columns. Fig. 2a and 2b; Screen shot for their load calculations.

Third, consequently he inadvertently applied erroneous formulas for the variables “C” distances from the neutral axes to the compression concrete fiber, which had resulted a bigger and negative (-) values for the theoretical Strength Design Capacity, ϕPn and ϕMn for the Columns and/or Piers of Dams (Barrages, Sluices) and service Bridges Piers, which he noted DISCARD design. How could a design calculation be discarded if all assumptions of the designs were accurate? I verified the calculations and made my conclusion, viz:
  1. The strain compatibility analysis was not done correctly;
  2. ϕPn is NEGATIVE it means the load is axially upward (tension);
  3. The variable "C" is negative(-), the distance from neutral axis to extreme compression fiber of concrete meaning variable "C" is outside the section diagram.
My comment:

variable 'C" must not be negative value, and never become a negative value!

Why don't they used the NEW ACI CODE PROVISIONS, if they are well experienced engineers with many work experiences as they bragged. As a SUGGESTION to them! USE the NEW ACI CODE provisions to SHOW OFF to others that they are well equipped with new weapons and ammunition (NEW STANDARDS, Codes). So, if they need NEW ACI318 CODE I have a copy of the latest ACI318 Code-2011 edition...! The AASHTO-2010 Bridge Design specifications..! The ACI Manual of Concrete Practice 2008 edition, six (6) volumes.

Therefore, the design is absurd! Why? Because the application of formulas was erroneous. please see the screen shot below.

Fig. 3 value of "C" and "fs" are negative -by PRISCO BOCO III
Fig. 4 value of C , Pny and fs are negative-design by PRISCO BOCO III

Pinipisakan Bridge Profile and  Side Elevation

Pier #3 Design by Prisco Boco, III compared /checked to his Calculation 

Subsequently, I tried to check, correct and rectify the applications of the formulas he used, hence, I have arrived a correct values which I have compared with the examples presented in the books of Venancio Besavilla (author-Reinforced Concrete Design) and Prof. A. H. Nilson, PhD., C. K. Wang, PhD. and C. G. Salmon, PhD. , P. Ferguson and James O. Jirsa (authors -reinforced concrete books), and I have also applied the ACI 318 Code-2005 and ACI 318 Code-2008 Codes, ACI Design Handbook, volume 2 -1997 (American Concrete Institutes) which I have latest copies.

There are three methods in the analysis and design of concrete columns as discussed by Chu-Kia Wang in his book reinforced concrete design, namely;

  1. Principles of statics;
  2. Non-dimensional strength interaction diagram (ACI design handbook, vol.2); and
  3. Approximate method using Whitney formula.

I will not discussed anymore these methods of design calculations but I suggest to them to read these design books. In view of the fact that engineering education in the Philippines is American oriented.

The Engineers are not permanent employees of NIA–HCAAP(PMO), they are all casuals and job orders employees, co-terminus. The engineers are being hired and employed thru politicians (palakasan system or with recommendation) the Politicians (who..?) or PM.

Mr. Danilo de Asis a graduate of BSCE on 2001, at the University of Eastern Philippines (UEP-Catarman Northern Samar) he replaced Mr. Prisco O. Boco III, as chief for operations who was transferred to regional office Tacloban City, although Mr. Danilo De Asis had worked for 9 years in NIA-HCAAP still he is inexperienced in design and construction, Dennis Losano a young engineer also. The Project Engineer Mr. David Irorita (BSCE) he is a good man, a man of few words, Asst. PE Buenaventura Poso (BSCE 2003) a good man also, the project -in charge Deodito Tejero (BSCE) from Biri Northern Samar a good man also (but effeminate-vicious-man engineer he often ask for allowance). Most of the engineers are younger than I am, why because when they enrolled civil engineering in UEP sometime in 1995 and 1996, I was a registered civil engineer already in 1991-1992, and had worked as Assistant Project engineer and Materials engineer in the construction of Catarman Bridge (232 linear meters) and by-pass road (6 kilometers), project cost was 110 millions pesos; and then transferred to LGU engineer (government). I have no resentment to those persons I mentioned, but people inside their ranks who wanted to belittle and degrade others, have questioned the integrity and credibility of others, must be very careful in judging others. As the Bible says! Matthew 7:2 "For with what judgement you are JUDGING, YOU will be judged; and with the MEASURE that YOU are MEASURING out, they will MEASURE out to YOU.

Unfriendly, the Project Manager Mr. Reinerio Irinco an Agricultural Engineering (BSAE) graduate and Mr. Danilo de Asis and others were saying that the contractor’s engineers are still young and inexperienced engineers. Mr. Reinerio Irinco was unaware of the facts that design calculations done by them was erroneous.

When meeting was held, Mr. Reinerio Irinco suggested that the contractor should hire engineers, having age ranging from 50 to 80 years old and having experiences of more than 10 years in dam construction, office engineer, and earthwork supervisor to supervise a project 10 kilometers away from town proper of Las Navas, Philippines, and he urged that the contractor must put funding to expedite the construction, and warned us that within 3 months (starting/beginning June 27, 2011) if there is no substantial accomplishment in major item of works, he will recommend that the contract will be terminated, I quote "You tell your boss (?) to put funds and hire more engineers with experience, surveyors, materials, and then he said! we will consider the experiences and qualifications of the engineers as per submitted RESUME'" Precisely! I agreed to him, he has experienced in managing projects as retirable engineer, but not in Design..! I admire him being an OLD engineer, also, the consultant Mr. Teopilo Malicse an old engineer who were using old standards (as old as their ages). I heard many feed backs from reliable sources (during bidding of some minor works at the HCAAP-PMO Catarman) that engineers included in the Organization Chart by JD Legaspi were inexperienced. Even Pierre Paul Carpio reacted about the words uttered by them, when we had a meeting. He said! I quote "you have the same education, you are all civil engineers." Parehas lang kayo mga engineers in local dialect.

Hence, Pride is more powerful and dangerous than humility, and indeed! we are just hired and being displayed by Mr. Eking Rubinicia, because Mr. Rubinicia is not experienced contractor and not a civil engineer, HE is just a sub-contractor of this project being used by somebody (who?). The problem was on the side of the main contractor who let inexperienced person to handle this multi-million project and then pretended to be experienced and could not defend his engineers from prideful engineers who supervise these simple projects. Nobody could withstand the hardship because the means of transportation is "WALKING" in a muddy, rough road and motorcycle back ride to reach the site, a far flung barangay Sta. Fe, Catubig, we went there on foot for the whole 6 kilometers on June 11, 2011. I am hoping that they could pressure the sub-contractor to do by all means to finish this son of a gun projects, and headache projects, so to speak. "BATO-BATO sa LANGIT ang TAMAAN ay HUWAG MAGALIT", "we are engineers not soldiers". We let our temper burst out like a gun, and then pull the trigger, because your ego, and our pride was hit by somebody..!

The projects were jointly funded by the Government of the Philippines and Government of Japan which involve millions of US Dollar and millions Philippine Pesos only to find out that the DESIGN were not accurate and erroneous application of design formulas. And to find out that the road was not constructed in good conscience. Politics is more powerful than knowledge and experiences.

Moreover, my feet and hands were embedded up to the knee level (nabaon ang paa ko hanggang tuhod) in the muddy road which was also a FMR project of NIA-HCAAP reported 100% completed as of 2008, this BULAO Farm to Market Road (FMR) was implemented by the Provincial engineering office with the supervision of JICA Consultants (JV of CONSULTANTS for HCAAP), this 7.10 kilometers FMR Project was Php 64 millions, but until now it's inaccessible and muddy road, I was surprised why the HCAAP (PMO) accepted 100% completed this Farm to Market Road. Only few people knew the real story behind the acceptance. Why? I met the former Mayor and now the incumbent Vice Mayor of Las Navas, he told me the real story behind, he could not complain to higher authority because he said he does like to quarrel with the gods in the province, and he said! I quote "Karma-gaba will judge them." I inserted PICTURES with dates as of December 3, 2010 to May 20, 2011, to present clear evidence, because they will deny these FACTS.
PH 64 millions 7.1 kilometers BULAO Farm to Market Road, DATE is DECEMBER 03, 2010, YOU can not deny this Mr. Johnny- A CLEAR EVIDENCE PICTURE

7.1 km. BULAO Farm to Market Road -HCAAP reported 100% completed, THIS PICTURE is CLEAR EVIDENCE of POOR construction, the DATE MAY 20, 2011 

7.1 km. BULAO FMR 100% completed reported by HCAAP- THIS PICTURE CLEAR EVIDENCE 
As an advice, I suggested to Mr. Gilbert Frincillo (graduate from Leyte Institute of Technology-Tacloban City), who is also ignorant or maybe he forgot the concrete design, engineer of the main contractor to hire from Harvard University (USA), University of Illinois (USA), Cornell University (USA) to employ engineers good in design, then if they could not find, and hire from Harvard University, Illinois, California University and Cornell University, my advice is to hire elsewhere "JOKE ONLY" "Bato-Bato sa Langit ang tamaan huwag magalit". HIRE from University of Eastern Philippines UEP-Catarman N. Samar) as what the HCAAP (PMO) did! like for instance they hired Mr. Danilo de Asis- BSCE 2001, Dennis Lozano (BSCE) graduated from University of Eastern Philippines (UEP- Catarman, N. Samar) having puffed up with pride and pedantic (in local dialect "nagdunong-dunongan"), with little knowledge or they forgot what they studied in concrete design, bridge analysis or may be they don't research the new ACI Code, or maybe they were absent during their CLASSES, and frankly speaking inexperienced engineer, all of them are protege of Mr. Irinco. Sorry to utter hostile comments to them, I hoped that congressman Daza will be awakened of this observation. THESE ARE NOT SELF SERVING COMMENTS, THIS IS FACTUAL OBSERVATION with EVIDENCE.

To show their design Calculations, I am posting screen shot taken from their protected spreadsheets and photos proof of their mistakes for anyone to review.

Screen shot for DISCARD Design due to Negative "C" or small eccentricity

Discard design by Prisco O. Boco III

Screen shot for Strain diagram and C calculation
Catubig Dam -2 gates only but having errors in design e.g. C distance and Strength Capacity
Screen shot Catubig Dam having errors in Strength Capacity -Pn- calculations
REBID BULAO DAM (LEFT UNFINISHED BY HANJIN Industries and Construction Ltd.)

DESIGNERS for BARRAGE DAMS and SLUICES PIERS, BRIDGE FLUMES, SERVICE BRIDGES, should have undergone training and seminars in structural analysis, concrete designs before become prideful, haughty engineers and eventually become HUMBLE in the eyes of GOD and to men.

Post Script:

They are showing in their reports and blog (Jhonny) some good pictures like the bridge in Las Navas which was designed and implemented by DPWH and supervised by Engineer Manuel "Sam" Uy from BOC-DPWH, Regional Office (R8), construction division, Engr. Uy was my co-worker in Oras Bridge, Oras Eastern Samar, Philippines, because this Las Navas highway bridge was DPWH project component under the HCAAP-NIA. Bid out on December 29, 2005, the bid amount was Php448 Million plus, implemented and supervised by DPWH central office and Construction division Region 8. Hence, Mr. Johnny, and other engineers showed pictures of this bridge, because they wanted to cover up their blunders in designed, failures and supervising these projects and be PRAISED by their administrator, director and the Provincial government.

The recent updates of these projects are good; The Project Manager Mr. Irinco had been transferred to NIA Central Office, then retired from government service, and Mr. Danilo De Asis had resigned from HCAAP.

To inform and speak to the persons who read this blogpost and made COMMENTS:

About the author of this blog..!

He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE);
He is a member of American Concrete Institute (ACI);

First, He worked as Project Engineer in the Construction of Oras Bridges 1 and 2, Oras Eastern Samar a Bored Pile Bridge (50 meters depth per bored pile, f'c =3000 psi) and Post-Tensioned girders (f'c =5,000 psi, 30 meters long girders), having a total length of 540 meters long (12 spans and 6 spans, 30 meters per span, this bridge was the first of it's kind, a bored piles bridge in region 8 when it was constructed in 1996 to 2000; under the supervision of the Bureau of Construction-BOC-DPWH Central office and DPWH -Regional office, Region VIII (8); under contract with BALM Construction, Co., Inc.

Oras Bridge -12 Spans

Second, he worked as Assistant Project Engineer and Material Engineer in the Construction of Catarman Bridge 232 meters long (8 spans, 28.4 meters long girders, f'c =5,000 psi), in 1992 to 1995 under the supervision of PADAP-SIRDP-Philippine Australian Development Assistance Program-Samar Integrated Rural development projects, this was a foreign assisted project; under Contract with BALM Construction, Co., Inc.

Catarman Bridge 8-spans
Catarman Bridge
Catarman Bridge

Then third, at the same time, he worked as material engineer in the construction of Jubasan bridge, ALLEN N. Samar, under PJHL-Philippine JAPAN Highway Loan- foreign assisted project; under Contract with BALM Construction, Co., Inc.

BALM Construction was the same contractor who constructed the 6-BRIDGES in Mondragon-Pambujan by-pass road (14 kilometers road), viz.; Mondragon Bridge (1984 -1987), Mondragon-Bugko Bridge (1986 -1987), Mondragon-Bagasbas -2 Bridges (1987); Pambujan Bridge (1988 to 1990); 1-bridge in San Roque N. Samar; and then Basiad Bridge in Bicol (1996 to 1998), Sipukot Bridge in Bicol, and more bridges, etc.